Category Archives: Events

Upcoming Event: 3D Printing in Law and Society

The Information Law and Policy Centre at IALS is pleased to announce the following lecture and book launch:

  • Date: Tuesday, 12 July 2016, from 18:00 to 19:00
  • Location: Institute for Advanced Legal Studies (IALS), University of London
  • Speaker: Dr Angela Daly, Vice-Chancellor’s Research Fellow, Queensland University of Technology Faculty of Law; Research Associate, Tilburg Institute of Law, Technology and Society
  • Discussant: Dr Dinusha Mendis, Co-Director, Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM), Bournemouth University
  • Please click here to book via the IALS Eventbrite page

Additive manufacturing or ‘3D printing’ has emerged into the mainstream in the last few years, with much hype about its revolutionary potential as the latest ‘disruptive technology’ after the Internet to destroy existing business models, empower individuals and evade any kind of government control. This lecture will examine some of these themes from a socio-legal perspective, looking at how various areas of law (including intellectual property, product liability, gun laws, data privacy and fundamental/constitutional rights) interact with 3D printing theoretically and in practice and comparing this interaction to that of the Internet before it. Despite rhetoric proclaiming that it is ushering in the end of government control and corporate-enforced scarcity, 3D printing, especially consumer-oriented printers, may not be as disruptive to law and society as commonly believed. This is because 3D printing is not just empowering ‘prosumers’, but government and corporate actors that have been investigating the potential of 3D printing for their own purposes, which may in the end just reinforce existing hierarchies and distributions of power.

This seminar will be followed by the book launch of ‘Socio-Legal Aspects of the 3D Printing Revolution’ by Angela Daly (Palgrave, 2016).

Biographies:

Angela Daly recently joined Queensland University of Technology’s Faculty of Law as Vice Chancellor’s Research Fellow and research associate at the Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society. She is a socio-legal scholar of technology with expertise in intellectual property, human rights (privacy and free expression), and competition and regulation. She is the author of ‘Socio-Legal Aspects of the 3D Printing Revolution’ (Palgrave 2016), which was based on her postdoctoral research at the Swinburne Institute for Social Research, and ‘Private Power, Online Information Flows and EU Law’ (Hart 2017), which was based on her doctoral research at the European University Institute. She also has degrees from Oxford University and the Université de Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and has previously worked for Ofcom and the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Dinusha Mendis is an Associate Professor in Law at Bournemouth University and Co-Director of the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM). Dinusha specialises in Intellectual Property Law, in particular copyright law, copyright licensing and digital copyright policy, and has published widely in this area. Her research also includes exploring the challenges to intellectual property law as a result of emerging technologies. In this context, she has conducted extensive funded and independent research on the intellectual property implications of 3D printing and emerging technologies. She has been invited to speak on the topic at the European Parliament; the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM); the UK House of Lords and at various academic organisations, as well as for blue-chip industry clients. During 2015, Dinusha was on research leave and held appointments as a Visiting Scholar at the University of Tasmania Australia and Stanford Law School, University of Stanford California. Dinusha holds qualifications from the Universities of Aberdeen (LLB (Hons)); Edinburgh (LLM, PhD); Nottingham Trent University (BVC), has been Called to the Bar of England and Wales and is a member of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple Inn, London.

 

Annual Conference 2017 Resources

The Information Law and Policy Centre held its third annual conference on 17th November 2017. The workshop’s theme was: ‘Children and Digital Rights: Regulating Freedoms and Safeguards’.

The workshop brought together regulators, practitioners, civil society, and leading academic experts who addressed and examined the key legal frameworks and policies being used and developed to safeguard children’s digital freedoms and rights. These legislative and policy regimes include the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the related provisions (such as consent, transparency, and profiling) under the UK Digital Charter, and the Data Protection Bill which will implement the EU General Data Protection Regulation.

The following resources are available online:

  • Full programme
  • Presentation: ILPC Annual Conference, Baroness Beeban Kidron (video)
  • Presentation: ILPC Annual Conference, Anna Morgan (video)
  • Presentation: ILPC Annual Conference, Lisa Atkinson (video)
  • Presentation: ILPC Annual Conference, Rachael Bishop (video)

Co-existing with HAL 9000: Being Human in a World with AI

This event will focus on the implications posed by the increasingly significant role of artificial intelligence (AI) in society and the possible ways in which humans will co-exist with AI in future, particularly the impact that this interaction will have on our liberty, privacy, and agency. Will the benefits of AI only be achieved at the expense of these human rights and values? Do current laws, ethics, or technologies offer any guidance with respect to how we should navigate this future society?

Event date:
Monday, 20 November 2017 – 5:30pm

Emotion detection, personalisation and autonomous decision-making online

This event took place at the Information Law and Policy Centre at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies on Monday, 5 February 2018.

Date
05 Feb 2018, 17:30 to 05 Feb 2018, 19:30
Venue
Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 17 Russell Square, London WC1B 5DR

Speaker: Damian Clifford, KU Leuven Centre for IT and IP Law

Panel Discussants:

Dr Edina Harbinja, Senior Lecturer in Law, University of Hertfordshire.

Hamed Haddadi, Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor),  Deputy Director of Research in the Dyson School of Design Engineering, and an Academic Fellow of the Data Science Institute in the Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College London.

Chair: Dr Nora Ni Loideain, Director and Lecturer in Law, Information Law and Policy Centre, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

Description:

Emotions play a key role in decision making. Technological advancements are now rendering emotions detectable in real-time. Building on the granular insights provided by big data, such technological developments allow commercial entities to move beyond the targeting of behaviour in advertisements to the personalisation of services, interfaces and the other consumer-facing interactions, based on personal preferences, biases and emotion insights gleaned from the tracking of online activity and profiling and the emergence of ‘emphathic media’.

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Personal Data as an Asset: Design and Incentive Alignments in a Personal Data Economy

Registration open

Date
19 Feb 2018, 17:30 to 19 Feb 2018, 19:30
Institute
Institute of Advanced Legal Studies
Venue
Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 17 Russell Square, London WC1B 5DR


Speaker:  Professor Irene Ng, Director of the International Institute for Product and Service Innovation and the Professor of Marketing and Service Systems at WMG, University of Warwick
Panel Discussants: Perry Keller, King’s College London and John Sheridan, National ArchivesChair:  Dr Nora Ni Loideain, Director and Lecturer in Law, Information Law & Policy Centre, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

 

Description:

Despite the World Economic Forum (2011) report on personal data becoming an asset class  the cost of transacting on personal data is becoming increasingly high with regulatory risks, societal disapproval, legal complexity and privacy concerns.

Professor Irene Ng contends that this is because personal data as an asset is currently controlled by organisations. As a co-produced asset, the person has not had the technological capability to control and process his or her own data or indeed, data in general. Hence, legal and economic structures have been created only around Organisation-controlled personal data (OPD).

This presentation will argue that a person-controlled personal data (PPD), technologically, legally and economically architected such that the individual owns a personal micro-server and therefore have full rights to the data within, much like owning a PC or a smartphone, is potentially a route to reducing transaction costs and innovating in the personal data economy. I will present the design and incentive alignments of stakeholders on the HAT hub-of-all-things platform (https://hubofallthings.com).

Professor Irene Ng is the Director of the International Institute for Product and Service Innovation and the Professor of Marketing and Service Systems at WMG, University of Warwick. She is also the Chairman of the Hub-of-all-Things (HAT) Foundation Group (http://hubofallthings.com). A market design economist, Professor Ng is an advisor to large organisations, startups and governments on design of markets, economic and business models in the digital economy. Personal website http://ireneng.com

John Sheridan is the Digital Director at The National Archives, with overall responsibility for the organisation’s digital services and digital archiving capability. His role is to provide strategic direction, developing the people and capability needed for The National Archives to become a disruptive digital archive. John’s academic background is in mathematics and information technology, with a degree in Mathematics and Computer Science from the University of Southampton and a Master’s Degree in Information Technology from the University of Liverpool. Prior to his current role, John was the Head of Legislation Services at The National Archives where he led the team responsible for creating legislation.gov.uk, as well overseeing the operation of the official Gazette. John recently led, as Principal Investigator, an Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project, ‘big data for law’, exploring the application of data analytics to the statute book, winning the Halsbury Legal Award for Innovation. John has a strong interest in the web and data standards and is a former co-chair of the W3C e-Government Interest Group. He serves on the UK Government’s Data Leaders group and Open Standards Board which sets data standards for use across government. John was an early pioneer of open data and remains active in that community.

Perry Keller is Reader in Media and Information Law at the Dickson Poon School of Law, King’s College London, where he teaches and researches issues relating to freedom of expression, privacy and data protection. He is the author of European and International Media Law. Mr Keller’s current research concerns the transparency of urban life as a consequence of governmental and commercial surveillance and the particular challenges that brings for liberal democracies. He also has longstanding connections with China, having previously studied or worked in Beijing, Nanjing, Taipei and Hong Kong. His current research interests regarding law and regulation in China concern the development of a divergent Chinese model for securing data privacy and security.

A wine reception will follow this seminar.


Admission FREE but advance booking is required.

 

On Internet Intermediaries – from Defamation to Directive to Data Protection

In this guest post,  Professor of Law and Innovation at Queen’s University Belfast Daithí Mac Síthigh reviews the recent Information Law and Policy Centre seminar that explored Internet intermediaries and their legal role and obligations.

Taking stock of recent developments concerning the liability and duties associated with being an Internet intermediary (especially the provision of hosting and social media services) was the theme of a recent event at the Information Law and Policy Centre. In my presentation, starting from about 20 years ago, I reviewed the early statutory interventions, including the broad protection against liability contained in US law (and the narrower shield in respect of intellectual property!), and the conditional provisions adopted by the European Union in Directive 2000/31/EC (E-Commerce Directive), alongside developments in specific areas, such as defamation. The most recent 10 years, though, have seen a trend towards specific solutions for one area of law or another (what I called ‘fragmentation’ in 2013), as well as a growing body of caselaw on liability, injunctions, and the like (both from the Court of Justice of the EU and the domestic courts).

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Co-existing with HAL 9000: Being Human in a World with AI

This event took place at the Information Law and Policy Centre at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies on Monday, 20 November 2017.

Date
20 Nov 2017, 17:30 to 20 Nov 2017, 19:30
Venue
Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 17 Russell Square, London WC1B 5DR

Description

As part of the University of London’s Being Human Festival, the Information Law and Policy Centre will be hosting a film and discussion panel evening at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies.

One of the Centre’s key aims is to promote public engagement by bringing together academic experts, policy-makers, industry, artists, and key civil society stakeholders (such as NGOs, journalists) to discuss issues and ideas concerning information law and policy relevant to the public interest that will capture the public’s imagination.

This event will focus on the implications posed by the increasingly significant role of artificial intelligence (AI) in society and the possible ways in which humans will co-exist with AI in future, particularly the impact that this interaction will have on our liberty, privacy, and agency. Will the benefits of AI only be achieved at the expense of these human rights and values? Do current laws, ethics, or technologies offer any guidance with respect to how we should navigate this future society?

The primary purpose of this event is to particularly encourage engagement and interest from young adults (15-18 years) in considering the implications for democracy, civil liberties, and human rights posed by the increasing role of AI in society that affect their everyday decision-making as humans and citizens. A limited number of places for this event will also be available to the general public.

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Information Law and Policy Centre’s Annual Conference 2017 – Children and Digital Rights: Regulating Freedoms and Safeguards

This event took place at the Information Law and Policy Centre at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies on Friday, 17 November 2017.
ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2017 RESOURCES

Date 17 Nov 2017, 09:30 to 17 Nov 2017, 17:30
Venue Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 17 Russell Square, London WC1B 5DR

Description

The Internet provides children with more freedom to communicate, learn, create, share, and engage with society than ever before. For instance, research by Ofcom in 2016 found that 72% of young teenagers (twelve to fifteen) in the UK have social media accounts which are often used for homework groups. 20% of the same group have made their own digital music and 30% have used the Internet for civic engagement by signing online petitions, or sharing and talking online about the news.

Interacting within this connected digital world, however, also presents a number of challenges to ensuring the adequate protection of a child’s rights to privacy, freedom of expression, and safety, both online and offline. These risks range from children being unable to identify advertisements on search engines to bullying in online chat groups. Children may also be targeted via social media platforms with methods (such as fake online identities or manipulated photos/images) specifically designed to harm them or exploit their particular vulnerabilities and naivety.

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The Surveillance Triangle: Authorities, Data subjects and Means

Readers of the Information and Law Policy Centre blog may be interested in the following event held by Maastricht University.

The academic conference addresses the question as to how surveillance is perceived from the perspective of three main stakeholders involved in the process of surveillance: surveillance authorities, data subjects and companies. The conference tackles precisely this issue. It brings together the perspective of those stakeholders and provides informative insights of academics from both the EU and the US on how these issues interplay in different contexts.

Programme

9:30-10:00 Registration
10:00-10:30 Keynote speech:
The EU’s approach towards surveillance”, Philippe Renaudière, Data Protection Officer, European Commission
10:30-12:00 Panel I: The perspective of the authorities who exercise surveillance
12:00-13:30 Lunch
13:30-15:00 Panel II: The perspective of Individuals subject to surveillance
15:00-15:30 Coffee break
15:30-17:00 Panel III: Means of Surveillance
17:00-17:30 Closing remarks, Giovanni Buttarelli, EDPS
17:30-18:00 Wrap-up
18:00 Network Cocktail

ECREA Communication Law and Policy Section Workshop

Readers of the Information and Law Policy Centre blog may be interested in the following ECREA event.

The Future of Media Content:
Interventions and Industries in the Internet Era
15 – 16 September 2017

The “Communication Law and Policy” and “Media Industries and Cultural Production” Sections of the European Communications Research and Education Association (ECREA) invite you to their 2017 joint workshop on The Future of Content: Interventions and Industries in the Internet Era, hosted by the University of East Anglia’s School of Politics, Philosophy, Language and Communication Studies. This unique opportunity will bring together those investigating the processes of production and distribution with those studying the policy and regulation governing those processes.

Renowned Prof Eli Noam from Columbia University, NY will deliver the keynote address. A keynote panel of industry and policy actors will additionally set the tone for a day and a half of research-based discussions on trends and challenges.

Media and communications industries have changed dramatically over the past decade and both businesses and policy makers are struggling to adapt. Legacy media companies engaged in cultural and news production are trying to change their business models in a manner that will allow them to survive in the face of increased competition for advertising income and the constraints of having a new breed of intermediaries between them and their audiences.

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Exploring the challenges of the new transnational cyber policing

hacking imageThe development of the Internet has facilitated global communications, new online spaces for the exchange of goods and information, new currencies and online marketplaces, and unprecedented access to information. These new possibilities in ‘cyberspace’ have been exploited for criminal activity and the rising challenge of various forms of ‘cybercrime’ in recent years has been well-documented.

As part of our cyber security and cybercrime seminar series at the Information Law and Policy Centre (ILPC) for 2017, lead speaker Dr Monique Mann explored the new challenges posed for policing and law enforcement by cybercrime and dissected the legal conundrums and human rights considerations raised by criminal activity which crosses international jurisdictions. The panel was also comprised of expert discussant, Professor Ian Walden (Queen Mary University of London), and was chaired by the ILPC’s Director, Dr Nóra Ni Loideain.

Mann’s current research – alongside her colleagues at the Queensland University of Technology and Deakin University – concerns the ‘legal geographies of digital technologies’. Her talk considered three case studies which formed the basis of broader conclusions in relation to the use of extraterritorial legal powers by states (particularly the United States) and the issues raised by extradition processes which have become prominent in several high profile hacking cases.

The Silk Road

Mann’s talk began with an analysis of the FBI’s investigation into the Silk Road – an illicit online marketplace trading drugs and other illegal items operated through the anonymity afforded by the Tor network. Mann stated that the equivalent of $1.2 billion in the cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, was exchanged by Silk Road users during the site’s operation between 2011 and 2013. She highlighted that the FBI’s investigation and attempts to prosecute the leaders of the site were dependent on a range of extraterritorial legal activities.

First, warrants to investigate the online activities of the suspects were issued only after the FBI had already managed to access information from a server in Iceland. It is not clear from public documents how the FBI gained access to this server. Moreover, the warrants – which were also relevant to individual citizens based outside the United States – were granted on the authority of a single US judge.

Secondly, in order to demonstrate conspiracy under the Continuing Criminal Enterprise Act, the FBI sought to access communications between the chief suspect in the case, Ross William Ulbricht, and co-offenders based in Ireland and Australia. This included an attempt by the FBI to access email content from Microsoft servers based in Ireland using a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) request. Microsoft fought the request and the most recent ruling on this issue has designated the request as an impermissible extraterritorial search.

Finally, the FBI sought to extradite Irish-based suspect, Gary Davis, to the United States in order to face trial for his involvement in the Silk Road site. Taken together, the FBI’s investigative techniques in relation to the Silk Road site raise significant questions around the processes and outcomes of extraterritorial legal activities.

Extradition

Gary Davis’ case was the catalyst for the team to investigate extradition in greater detail as it is has become a central, if exceptional, feature of transnational justice cooperation. Mann and her colleagues have reviewed a number of high profile cases of citizens facing extradition including Davis, Gary McKinnon and Laurie Love. In the past, extradition has primarily been used as a tool to return a suspected criminal to his or her home country after he or she has fled. In the digital age, however, extradition is increasingly being used in cyber crime cases to extradite suspected criminals to a country they may never have even visited as the nature of transnational online offending means their crime effectively takes place in a different location to where they are physically based.

Courts have three options on being presented with an extradition request from another jurisdiction: accept the request and relocate the offender to face trial in the prosecuting country; deny the request altogether; or shift the prosecution to the ‘source of harm’ – i.e. the offender’s location.

Mann pointed out that in the cases of Gary McKinnon and Laurie Love, extradition requests from the United States have triggered protracted legal cases lasting many years as the defendants have (variously) argued that the extradition request infringes their Article 3, 6 and/or 8 rights under the European Convention of Human Rights. The cases have also hinged on the defendants’ physical and mental well-being, particularly in relation to Autistic Spectrum Disorders (emerging research suggests there is a link between online offending and ASDs).

The difficulties and legal complexities of these extradition cases, as well as a concern for the human rights of those involved, led the researchers to question whether it would not be better to shift the legal forum to the source – i.e. to the defendant’s home country.

Attendees at the ILPC seminar, however, highlighted that there are significant obstacles both in terms of cost and willingness to share evidence. It was argued, for example, that the UK was probably not willing to finance McKinnon’s trial here, nor would the US be interested in sharing sensitive information relating to the 73,000 US government computers – including NASA and military facilities – that McKinnon had hacked from his home computer.

Bulk Hacking and Child Exploitation Material

The final feature of extraterritorial law enforcement that Mann highlighted was the use of bulk hacking. These ‘watering hole’ or ‘honeypot’ operations have involved the FBI taking over an illegal website, moving it to a government server, continuing to operate the site, and then using it as a base to hack unsuspecting users.

In the Playpen example which Mann cited, the US government infected more than 8,000 computers in over 120 countries with a single warrant making it the largest known extraterritorial hacking operation. The investigation into Playpen – a site for the exchange of child exploitation material – has sparked 124 cases involving 17 defendants. One of the central legal questions here has been whether such activities constitute a “search” of the site’s users or whether they constitute online tracking.

Defendants have also attempted to argue that the US government has engaged in outrageous conduct in continuing to operate the Playpen website pointing out that during 2 weeks of operation the US government will have distributed 22,000 images of child exploitation material. Although the court in the case argued that the US government did not create the crimes committed, Mann nevertheless raised the question as to whether the ends do justify these means.

Implications and Issues

For Mann, the Silk Road, extradition and bulk hacking case studies focus attention on the role of the United States in the transnational jurisdictional sphere. How far has policing in the context of cybercrime become ‘Americanised’ and at the behest of US agendas (such as the war on drugs)? And what does US law enforcement activity mean for understandings of ‘ownership’ of the internet?

Addressing these points, the panel’s discussant, Professor Ian Walden, a leading expert in information and communications law, stated that the United States’ access to investigative and legal resources will continue to mean it is ‘an important player’ in the prosecution of transnational cybercrime. He also argued that greater efforts at resolving legal conflict and a focus on international cooperation will be required as crime increasingly traverses international boundaries and as jurisdictional claims of countries concurrently expands.

Walden was hopeful that international cooperation could be improved through international aid to raise standards of criminal and procedural law, and he acknowledged that in particularly serious cyber crime offences, such as child exploitation material, there is some harmonisation.

He was not convinced, however, that in the near future there would be any advance in international agreements on cooperation beyond the Council of Europe’s 2001 Convention on Cybercrime. Differing national agendas and legal standards, he said, also create difficulties for international cooperation and legal harmonisation. Walden noted that Kenyan parliamentarians, for example, regard the main ‘cybercrime’ issue as the use of Facebook to accuse them of corruption – an issue which is of little concern in other parts of the world; while in Nigeria, cybercrimes can lead to the death penalty – a sanction that would be unacceptable to many other legal jurisdictions and not a solid foundation for cooperation.

In conclusion, the panel observed that British and European law has also so far held up and blocked the extraditions of Gary McKinnon and Laurie Love to the United States in the ‘interests of justice’. As a consequence of these and similar obstacles to transnational cooperation, it is likely that jurisdictional clashes in these transnational cybercrime cases will become more commonplace – particularly if the scope for cybercrime increases with the ongoing spread of the internet and new communication technologies.

And perhaps, paradoxically, it might be the case that out of these clashes, new methods, techniques and agreements on transnational policing and law enforcement will have to emerge.

Daniel Bennett, Research Assistant, Information Law and Policy Centre