Dr Nóra Ni Loideain




B.A., LL.B., LL.M. (Hons) (National University of Ireland, Galway);

Ph.D. (University of Cambridge)

Research interests: 

Nóra’s research and publications focus on the governance of human rights and emerging technologies, particularly within the contexts of law enforcement and national security in EU and European Human Rights law, and AI and gender.

She holds the affiliated academic posts: Senior Research Fellow, Faculty of Humanities, University of Johannesburg; Research Associate, University of Cambridge’s Centre for Intellectual Property and Information Law (CIPIL); and Associate Fellow, Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence (LCFI), University of Cambridge. Previously, Nóra has been: an Affiliated Lecturer in Law and Research Fellow at the University of Cambridge; Visiting Lecturer in Law at King’s College London; and a Visiting Researcher at the University of Cape Town.

In 2019, Nóra was appointed to the UK Home Office Biometrics and Forensics Ethics Group (BFEG) which provides independent advice ensuring that the evidence underpinning biometrics and forensics policy development within the Home Office is robust. Prior to her academic career, she was Legal and Policy Officer for the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions of Ireland and clerked for the Irish Supreme Court. Nóra is a trustee on the Board of the British and Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII), and an editor of International Data Privacy Law (Oxford University Press). Her work in the governance of emerging technologies, EU law, and European human rights law, has been cited and published by the BBC, The Guardian, Science, the UK House of Lords and the United Nations.

Other Information:

Eliza Boudier is the main contact for Nóra:

Email: eliza.boudier@sas.ac.uk
Tel: + 44 (0) 207 862 5849



‘Gender as Emotive AI and the Case of Nadia: Regulatory and Ethical Implications’ (2021) Internet Policy Review (co-author with R. Adams and D. Clifford) (in press)

‘Enabling the use of health data for research: developing a POPIA Code of Conduct for research in South Africa’ (2021) 14(1) South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 33 (co-author with C. Staunton et al)

‘Regulating health research and respecting data protection: a global dialogue’ (2020) 10(2) International Data Privacy Law 115 – Special Symposium Issue on Health Research and Data Protection in Africa (Editor and author)  

‘Alexa to Siri and the GDPR: The Gendering of Virtual Personal Assistants and the Role of EU Data Protection Law’ (2020) 36 Computer Law and Security Review (co-author with R. Adams)

‘A Port in the Data-sharing Storm: the GDPR and the Internet of things’ (2019) 4(2) Journal of Cyber Policy 178

‘Addressing Indirect Discrimination and Gender Stereotypes in AI Virtual Personal Assistants: The Role of International Human Rights Law’ (2019) 8(2) Cambridge International Law Journal 241 (co-author with R. Adams)

‘Safeguarding the future of genomic research in South Africa: broad consent and the Protection of Personal Information Act 2013’ (2019) 109(7) South African Medical Journal 468 (co-author with C. Staunton et al)

‘Ethical and practical issues to consider in the governance of Data Sharing for Genomic and Human Research Data in South Africa: a meeting report’ AAS Open Res 2019, 2:15 (co-author with C. Staunton et al)

‘An Unstoppable Force and an Immoveable Object? EU Data Protection Law and National Surveillance’ (2018) 8(1) International Data Privacy Law 1 (co-author with C. Kuner et al)

‘Children and Digital Rights’ (2018) 23(1) Communications Law 1 (co-author with P. Wragg)

‘Cape Town as a Smart and Safe City: Implications for Governance and Data Privacy’ (2017) 7(4) International Data Privacy Law 314

‘The End of Safe Harbor: Implications for EU Digital Privacy and Data Protection Law’ (2016) 19(8) Journal of Internet Law 1

‘EU Law and Mass Internet Metadata Surveillance in the post-Snowden era’ (2015) 3(2) Media and Communications – Special Issue on Surveillance 53

Book Chapters

“A Bridge too Far? The Investigatory Powers Act 2016 and Human Rights Law” in L. Edwards (ed), Law, Policy and the Internet (2nd ed., London: Hart, 2018)

“Surveillance of Communications Data and Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights” in S. Gutwirth, R. Leenes, P. De Hert and Y. Poullet, (eds.), Reloading Data Protection (Dordrecht: Springer, 2014)

“Assessing the Evaluation of the EC Data Retention Directive”, in C.M. Akrivopoulou and N. Garipidis, (eds.), Human Rights and Risks in the Digital Era (Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2012)

“Implications of the EC Data Retention Directive for Data Protection and Privacy”, in C.M. Akrivopoulou and A. Psygkas, (eds.), Personal Data Privacy and Protection in a Surveillance Era: Technologies and Practices (Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2011)

Book Reviews

Review of R. Jay, Guide to the General Data Protection Regulation (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2017) (2017) 22(4) Communications Law 140

Review of S.B. Wicker, Cellular Convergence and the Death of Privacy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011) (2014) 4(3) International Data Privacy Law 243

Review of C.T. Marsden, Internet Co-Regulation: European Law, Regulatory Governance and Legitimacy in Cyberspace (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011) (2012) 71(2) Cambridge Law Journal 457

Evidence to Parliament and Policymakers

Expert Witness to House of Lords, ‘Post-Brexit UK-EU Security Cooperation’, EU Security and Justice Sub-committee Inquiry, 12 January 2021. See here the final report published in April 2021: Beyond Brexit: policing, law enforcement and security 

Submission of evidence, Joint Committee on Human Rights: The Government’s response to COVID-19: human rights implications (4 May 2020), available here.

Submission of evidence, Joint Committee on Human Rights: The Right to Privacy (Article 8) and the Digital Revolution (19 June 2019), available here.

Submission of evidence, UN Special Rapporteur on Privacy, Consultation on ‘Gender Perspectives on Privacy’ (September 2019), see here (co-author with R. Adams).

Technology and Democracy Project, CRASSH, University of Cambridge, Written evidence to Public Committee on revised Investigatory Powers Bill (IPB64) (published 14 April 2016)

ILPC, Report of Expert Working Group on Investigatory Powers Bill, Findings Published in Joint Committee Report on Draft Investigatory Powers Bill (HL Paper 93) (published 11 February 2016)

Technology and Democracy Project, CRASSH, University of Cambridge, Written Evidence to Joint Committee on the Draft Investigatory Powers Bill (published 10 December 2015)

Other Publications and Public Engagement

‘The Coronavirus (Safeguards) Bill 2020: Proposed protections for digital interventions and in relation to immunity certificates’ (2020) LawArXivhttps://osf.io/preprints/lawarxiv/yc6xu  (co-author with L. Edward et al).

‘Irish data watchdog ‘must show Europe the way’ The Irish Independent, 29 November 2019, available here (interview with L. Kelly).

‘Gendered AI and the Role of Data Protection Law’, Talking Humanities, 10 October 2018, available here (co-author with R. Adams).

“Greater Power Should Come with Greater Accountability: Revisiting the Roles of Data Controllers and Processors”, Seminar Paper, Data Management and Use: Governance in the 21st Century, British Academy and Royal Society Report, October 2017

“National Mass Communications Data Surveillance and the Law: Advocate General’s Opinion in Watson and Tele2 Sverige”, CRASSH Blog, University of Cambridge, 9 August 2016

“The UK Investigatory Powers Bill – one step forward, two steps back” (Online article) Open Democracy, 17 November 2015

“Is the EU really about to outlaw mass metadata surveillance?” (Online article) Wired Magazine, 28 April 2014

“The Draft EU Data Protection Package: A history of the EU’s privacy reform efforts and a look forward to the finish line” (Online article) International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP), 5 December